Slightly narrowed, thickened, or roughened valves (aortic sclerosis) or aortic dilation may produce the typical murmur and thrill without causing significant hemodynamic effects. In mild or moderate cases, the characteristic signs are a systolic ejection murmur at the aortic area transmitted to the neck and apex; in severe cases, a palpable left ventricular heave or thrill, a weak to absent aortic second sound, or reversed splitting of the second sound is present. When the valve area is less than 0.8–1 cm2 (normal, 3–4 cm2), ventricular systole becomes prolonged and the typical carotid pulse pattern of delayed upstroke and low amplitude is present, but this may be an unreliable finding in older patients with extensive arteriosclerotic vascular disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy increases progressively, with resulting elevations in ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Cardiac output is maintained until the stenosis is severe (with a valve area < 0.8 cm2). Patients may present with left ventricular failure, angina pectoris, or syncope.
Aortic Stenosis is due to the decreasing amounts of water will pass through the obstruction. Pressure behind the nozzle will build up. Aortic Stenosis nothing is done, your lawn will not get the water it needs. Aortic Stenosis is a Cardiovascular disease occuring at the level of the aortic valve in 60-75% of cases. Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. The heart muscle can be damaged when it does not receive enough blood. A damaged heart cannot pump enough blood for the body's needs, leading to heart failure. It is associated with a bicuspid aortic valve in greater than 50% of cases.
Causes of Aortic Stenosis
Some common causes follows:
Symptoms of Aortic Stenosis
These are symptoms of Aortic Stenosis :
Prognosis & Treatment of of Aortic Stenosis
Following the onset of heart failure, angina, or syncope, the prognosis without surgery is poor (50% 3-year mortality rate). Medical treatment may stabilize patients in heart failure, but surgery is indicated for all symptomatic patients, including those with left ventricular dysfunction, which often improves postoperatively. Valve replacement is usually not indicated in asymptomatic individuals. Exceptions are those with declining left ventricular function, very severe left ventricular hypertrophy, and very high gradients (> 80 mm Hg) or severely reduced valve areas ( 0.7 cm2).
The surgical mortality rate for valve replacement is 2–5%, but it rises to 10% above the age of 75. Mortality rates are substantially higher when left ventricular function is depressed or when severe coronary disease and prior myocardial infarctions are present. Severe coronary lesions are usually bypassed at the same time. Anticoagulation with warfarin is required for mechanical prostheses but is not essential with bioprostheses. Although bioprosthetic valves have hitherto undergone degenerative changes and required replacement within 7–10 years (sometimes within 3 years), newer ones may be more durable. Some centers have begun performing the Ross procedure, which entails switching the patient's pulmonary valve to the aortic position and placing a bioprosthesis in the pulmonary position. Because bioprostheses do not deteriorate as fast on the right side of the heart, this procedure has produced excellent long-term results without anticoagulation.
Although percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty can produce short-term reductions in the severity of aortic stenosis, restenosis occurs rapidly in most adults who have calcified valves. Except in adolescents, balloon valvuloplasty should be reserved for individuals who are poor candidates for surgery or as an intermediate procedure to stabilize high-risk patients prior to surgery. Some treatment methods for Aortic Stenosis
Disclaimer : All information on www.healthatoz.info is for educational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, please consult your doctor.